Takashi Kozai

Associate Professor
Linkedin Bioengineering Department


Takashi Kozai is a Assistant Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Kozai received his PhD in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Michigan in 2011. His research focuses on understand the biological tissue response to implantable technologies, especially in the cortex. Prior to that, he worked in a lab at the University of Colorado, Boulder where he gained the fundamental knowledge and experiences to understand intelligent bio-design, bio-templating, and bio-mimicry. Dr. Kozai's research employs in vivo multi-photon microscopy, functionally evoked electrophysiology, post-mortem multi-channel immunohistochemistry, impedance spectroscopy, device design, and emerging biomaterial tools. His biomaterial experience and knowledge of biology enabled him to invent several devices that led to 2 awarded patents, 3 pending patents, a start-up company, and a number of scientific publications, including Nature Materials.


Postdoctoral in Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 2011 - 2013

PhD, Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2005 - 2011

MS, Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2005 - 2007

BA, Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, 2001 - 2005

BA, Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, 2001 - 2005

Chen, K., Wellman, S.M., Yaxiaer, Y., Eles, J.R., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2021). In vivo spatiotemporal patterns of oligodendrocyte and myelin damage at the neural electrode interface. BIOMATERIALS, 268, 120526.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120526.

Dubaniewicz, M., Eles, J.R., Lam, S., Song, S., Cambi, F., Sun, D., Wellman, S.M., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2021). Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger modulates microglial activation and scar formation following microelectrode implantation. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 18(4), 045001.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/abe8f1.

Eles, J.R., Stieger, K.C., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2021). The temporal pattern of intracortical microstimulation pulses elicits distinct temporal and spatial recruitment of cortical neuropil and neurons. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 18(1), 015001.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/abc29c.

Fitz, N.F., Nam, K.N., Wolfe, C.M., Letronne, F., Playso, B.E., Iordanova, B.E., Kozai, T.D.Y., Biedrzycki, R.J., Kagan, V.E., Tyurina, Y.Y., Han, X., Lefterov, I., & Koldamova, R. (2021). Phospholipids of APOE lipoproteins activate microglia in an isoform-specific manner in preclinical models of Alzheimer's disease. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 12(1), 3416.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23762-0.

Sahasrabuddhe, K., Khan, A.A., Singh, A.P., Stern, T.M., Ng, Y., Tadic, A., Orel, P., LaReau, C., Pouzzner, D., Nishimura, K., Boergens, K.M., Shivakumar, S., Hopper, M.S., Kerr, B., Hanna, M.E.S., Edgington, R.J., McNamara, I., Fell, D., Gao, P., Babaie-Fishani, A., Veijalainen, S., Klekachev, A.V., Stuckey, A.M., Luyssaert, B., Kozai, T.D.Y., Xie, C., Gilja, V., Dierickx, B., Kong, Y., Straka, M., Sohal, H.S., & Angle, M.R. (2021). The Argo: a high channel count recording system for neural recording in vivo. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 18(1), 015002.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/abd0ce.

Trevathan, J.K., Asp, A.J., Nicolai, E.N., Trevathan, J.M., Kremer, N.A., Kozai, T.D.Y., Cheng, D., Schachter, M.J., Nassi, J.J., Otte, S.L., Parker, J.G., Lujan, J.L., & Ludwig, K.A. (2021). Calcium imaging in freely moving mice during electrical stimulation of deep brain structures. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 18(2), 026008.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/abb7a4.

Eles, J.R., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2020). In vivo imaging of calcium and glutamate responses to intracortical microstimulation reveals distinct temporal responses of the neuropil and somatic compartments in layer II/III neurons. Biomaterials, 234, 119767.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.119767.

Stieger, K.C., Eles, J.R., Ludwig, K.A., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2020). In vivomicrostimulation with cathodic and anodic asymmetric waveforms modulates spatiotemporal calcium dynamics in cortical neuropil and pyramidal neurons of male mice. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, 98(10), 2072-2095.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24676.

Wellman, S.M., Guzman, K., Stieger, K.C., Brink, L.E., Sridhar, S., Dubaniewicz, M.T., Li, L., Cambi, F., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2020). Cuprizone-induced oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination impairs recording performance of chronically implanted neural interfaces. BIOMATERIALS, 239, 119842.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.119842.

Yang, Q., Wu, B., Eles, J.R., Vazquez, A.L., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Cui, X.T. (2020). Zwitterionic Polymer Coating Suppresses Microglial Encapsulation to Neural Implants In Vitro and In Vivo. ADVANCED BIOSYSTEMS, 4(6), e1900287.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/adbi.201900287.

Baranov, S.V., Baranova, O.V., Yablonska, S., Suofu, Y., Vazquez, A.L., Kozai, T.D.Y., Cui, X.T., Ferrando, L.M., Larkin, T.M., Tyurina, Y.Y., Kagan, V.E., Carlisle, D.L., Kristal, B.S., & Friedlander, R.M. (2019). Mitochondria modulate programmed neuritic retraction. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 116(2), 650-659.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1811021116.

Chen, K., Lam, S., & Kozai, T.D. (2019). What directions of improvements in electrode designs should we expect in the next 5-10 years?. Bioelectron Med (Lond), 2(3), 119-122.Future Medicine Ltd. doi: 10.2217/bem-2019-0023.

Eles, J.R., Vazquez, A.L., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Cui, X.T. (2019). Meningeal inflammatory response and fibrous tissue remodeling around intracortical implants: An in vivo two-photon imaging study. BIOMATERIALS, 195, 111-123.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.12.031.

Ereifej, E.S., Shell, C.E., Schofield, J.S., Charkhkar, H., Cuberovic, I., Dorval, A.D., Graczyk, E.L., Kozai, T.D.Y., Otto, K.J., Tyler, D.J., Welle, C.G., Widge, A.S., Zariffa, J., Moritz, C.T., Bourbeau, D.J., & Marasco, P.D. (2019). Neural engineering: the process, applications, and its role in the future of medicine. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 16(6), 063002.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/ab4869.

Kozai, T.D.Y., & Purcell, E.K. (2019). BRAIN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Pipette-integrated microelectrodes. NATURE BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 3(9), 682-683.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/s41551-019-0452-x.

Michelson, N.J., Eles, J.R., Vazquez, A.L., Ludwig, K.A., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2019). Calcium activation of cortical neurons by continuous electrical stimulation: Frequency dependence, temporal fidelity, and activation density. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, 97(5), 620-638.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24370.

Stocking, K.C., Vazquez, A.L., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2019). Intracortical Neural Stimulation With Untethered, Ultrasmall Carbon Fiber Electrodes Mediated by the Photoelectric Effect. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 66(8), 2402-2412.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi: 10.1109/TBME.2018.2889832.

Wellman, S.M., Li, L., Yaxiaer, Y., McNamara, I., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2019). Revealing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Cell Death, Glial Proliferation, and Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Around Implanted Intracortical Neural Interfaces. FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE, 13(MAY), 493.Frontiers Media SA. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00493.

Cody, P.A., Eles, J.R., Lagenaur, C.F., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Cui, X.T. (2018). Unique electrophysiological and impedance signatures between encapsulation types: An analysis of biological Utah array failure and benefit of a biomimetic coating in a rat model. BIOMATERIALS, 161, 117-128.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.01.025.

Eles, J.R., Vazquez, A.L., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Cui, X.T. (2018). In vivo imaging of neuronal calcium during electrode implantation: Spatial and temporal mapping of damage and recovery. BIOMATERIALS, 174, 79-94.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.04.043.

Golabchi, A., Wu, B., Li, X., Carlisle, D.L., Kozai, T.D.Y., Friedlander, R.M., & Cui, X.T. (2018). Melatonin improves quality and longevity of chronic neural recording. BIOMATERIALS, 180, 225-239.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.07.026.

Iordanova, B., Vazquez, A., Kozai, T.D.Y., Fukuda, M., & Kim, S.G. (2018). Optogenetic investigation of the variable neurovascular coupling along the interhemispheric circuits. JOURNAL OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM, 38(4), 627-640.SAGE Publications. doi: 10.1177/0271678X18755225.

Kozai, T.D.Y. (2018). The History and Horizons of Microscale Neural Interfaces. MICROMACHINES, 9(9), 445.MDPI AG. doi: 10.3390/mi9090445.

Michelson, N.J., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2018). Isoflurane and ketamine differentially influence spontaneous and evoked laminar electrophysiology in mouse V1. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 120(5), 2232-2245.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00299.2018.

Michelson, N.J., Vazquez, A.L., Eles, J.R., Salatino, J.W., Purcell, E.K., Williams, J.J., Cui, X.T., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2018). Multi-scale, multi-modal analysis uncovers complex relationship at the brain tissue-implant neural interface: new emphasis on the biological interface. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 15(3), 033001.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aa9dae.

Nicolai, E.N., Michelson, N.J., Settell, M.L., Hara, S.A., Trevathan, J.K., Asp, A.J., Stocking, K.C., Lujan, J.L., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Ludwig, K.A. (2018). Design Choices for Next-Generation Neurotechnology Can Impact Motion Artifact in Electrophysiological and Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry Measurements. MICROMACHINES, 9(10), 494.MDPI AG. doi: 10.3390/mi9100494.

Salatino, J.W., Ludwig, K.A., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Purcell, E.K. (2018). Publisher Correction: Glial responses to implanted electrodes in the brain. Nat Biomed Eng, 2(1), 52.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/s41551-017-0177-7.

Wellman, S.M., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2018). In vivo spatiotemporal dynamics of NG2 glia activity caused by neural electrode implantation. BIOMATERIALS, 164, 121-133.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.02.037.

Wellman, S.M., Cambi, F., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2018). The role of oligodendrocytes and their progenitors on neural interface technology: A novel perspective on tissue regeneration and repair. BIOMATERIALS, 183, 200-217.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.08.046.

Wellman, S.M., Eles, J.R., Ludwig, K.A., Seymour, J.P., Michelson, N.J., McFadden, W.E., Vazquez, A.L., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2018). A Materials Roadmap to Functional Neural Interface Design. ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 28(12), 1701269.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201701269.

Du, Z.J., Kolarcik, C.L., Kozai, T.D.Y., Luebben, S.D., Sapp, S.A., Zheng, X.S., Nabity, J.A., & Cui, X.T. (2017). Ultrasoft microwire neural electrodes improve chronic tissue integration. ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, 53, 46-58.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.02.010.

Eles, J.R., Vazquez, A.L., Snyder, N.R., Lagenaur, C., Murphy, M.C., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Cui, X.T. (2017). Neuroadhesive L1 coating attenuates acute microglial attachment to neural electrodes as revealed by live two-photon microscopy. BIOMATERIALS, 113, 279-292.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.10.054.

Salatino, J.W., Ludwig, K.A., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Purcell, E.K. (2017). Glial responses to implanted electrodes in the brain. NATURE BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 1(11), 862-877.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/s41551-017-0154-1.

Wellman, S.M., & Kozai, T.D.Y. (2017). Understanding the Inflammatory Tissue Reaction to Brain Implants To Improve Neurochemical Sensing Performance. ACS CHEMICAL NEUROSCIENCE, 8(12), 2578-2582.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00403.

Khilwani, R., Gilgunn, P.J., Kozai, T.D.Y., Ong, X.C., Korkmaz, E., Gunalan, P.K., Cui, X.T., Fedder, G.K., & Ozdoganlar, O.B. (2016). Ultra-miniature ultra-compliant neural probes with dissolvable delivery needles: design, fabrication and characterization. BIOMEDICAL MICRODEVICES, 18(6), 97.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s10544-016-0125-4.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Catt, K., Du, Z., Na, K., Srivannavit, O., Haque, R.U.M., Seymour, J., Wise, K.D., Yoon, E., & Cui, X.T. (2016). Chronic In Vivo Evaluation of PEDOT/CNT for Stable Neural Recordings. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 63(1), 111-119.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi: 10.1109/TBME.2015.2445713.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Eles, J.R., Vazquez, A.L., & Cui, X.T. (2016). Two-photon imaging of chronically implanted neural electrodes: Sealing methods and new insights. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, 258, 46-55.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.10.007.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Jaquins-Gerstl, A.S., Vazquez, A.L., Michael, A.C., & Cui, X.T. (2016). Dexamethasone retrodialysis attenuates microglial response to implanted probes in vivo. BIOMATERIALS, 87, 157-169.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.02.013.

Patel, P.R., Zhang, H., Robbins, M.T., Nofar, J.B., Marshall, S.P., Kobylarek, M.J., Kozai, T.D.Y., Kotov, N.A., & Chestek, C.A. (2016). Chronic in vivo stability assessment of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 13(6), 066002.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/13/6/066002.

Alba, N.A., Du, Z.J., Catt, K.A., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Cui, X.T. (2015). In Vivo Electrochemical Analysis of a PEDOT/MWCNT Neural Electrode Coating. Biosensors (Basel), 5(4), 618-646.MDPI AG. doi: 10.3390/bios5040618.

Kolarcik, C.L., Catt, K., Rost, E., Albrecht, I.N., Bourbeau, D., Du, Z., Kozai, T.D.Y., Luo, X., Weber, D.J., & Cui, X.T. (2015). Evaluation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/carbon nanotube neural electrode coatings for stimulation in the dorsal root ganglion. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 12(1), 016008.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/12/1/016008.

Kolarcik, C.L., Luebben, S.D., Sapp, S.A., Hanner, J., Snyder, N., Kozai, T.D.Y., Chang, E., Nabity, J.A., Nabity, S.T., Lagenaur, C.F., & Cui, X.T. (2015). Elastomeric and soft conducting microwires for implantable neural interfaces. SOFT MATTER, 11(24), 4847-4861.Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). doi: 10.1039/c5sm00174a.

Kozai, T.D.Y., & Vazquez, A.L. (2015). Photoelectric artefact from optogenetics and imaging on microelectrodes and bioelectronics: new challenges and opportunities. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY B, 3(25), 4965-4978.Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). doi: 10.1039/c5tb00108k.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Catt, K., Li, X., Gugel, Z.V., Olafsson, V.T., Vazquez, A.L., & Cui, X.T. (2015). Mechanical failure modes of chronically implanted planar silicon-based neural probes for laminar recording. BIOMATERIALS, 37, 25-39.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.10.040.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Jaquins-Gerstl, A.S., Vazquez, A.L., Michael, A.C., & Cui, X.T. (2015). Brain Tissue Responses to Neural Implants Impact Signal Sensitivity and Intervention Strategies. ACS CHEMICAL NEUROSCIENCE, 6(1), 48-67.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/cn500256e.

Patel, P.R., Na, K., Zhang, H., Kozai, T.D.Y., Kotov, N.A., Yoon, E., & Chestek, C.A. (2015). Insertion of linear 8.4 mu m diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 12(4), 046009.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/12/4/046009.

Rozai, T.D.Y., Du, Z., Gugel, Z.V., Smith, M.A., Chase, S.M., Bodily, L.M., Caparosa, E.M., Friedlander, R.M., & Cui, X.T. (2015). Comprehensive chronic laminar single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential recording performance with planar single shank electrode arrays. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, 242, 15-40.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.12.010.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Alba, N.A., Zhang, H., Kotov, N.A., Gaunt, R.A., & Cui, X.T. (2014). Nanostructured Coatings for Improved Charge Delivery to Neurons. In Nanotechnology and Neuroscience: Nano-electronic, Photonic and Mechanical Neuronal Interfacing. (pp. 71-134).Springer New York. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4899-8038-0_4.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Gugel, Z., Li, X., Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Fedder, G.K., Weber, D.J., & Cui, X.T. (2014). Chronic tissue response to carboxymethyl cellulose based dissolvable insertion needle for ultra-small neural probes. BIOMATERIALS, 35(34), 9255-9268.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.07.039.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Li, X., Bodily, L.M., Caparosa, E.M., Zenonos, G.A., Carlisle, D.L., Friedlander, R.M., & Cui, X.T. (2014). Effects of caspase-1 knockout on chronic neural recording quality and longevity: Insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms of the reactive tissue response. BIOMATERIALS, 35(36), 9620-9634.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.08.006.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Langhals, N.B., Patel, P.R., Deng, X., Zhang, H., Smith, K.L., Lahann, J., Kotov, N.A., & Kipke, D.R. (2012). Ultrasmall implantable composite microelectrodes with bioactive surfaces for chronic neural interfaces. NATURE MATERIALS, 11(12), 1065-1073.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/NMAT3468.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Vazquez, A.L., LWeaver, C., Kim, S.G., & Cui, X.T. (2012). In vivo two-photon microscopy reveals immediate microglial reaction to implantation of microelectrode through extension of processes. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 9(6), 066001.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/9/6/066001.

Kozai, T.D.Y., Marzullo, T.C., Hooi, F., Langhals, N.B., Majewska, A.K., Brown, E.B., & Kipke, D.R. (2010). Reduction of neurovascular damage resulting from microelectrode insertion into the cerebral cortex using in vivo two-photon mapping. JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING, 7(4), 046011.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/7/4/046011.

Escamilla-Mackert, T., Langhals, N.B., Kozai, T.D.Y., & Kipke, D.R. (2009). Insertion of a three dimensional silicon microelectrode assembly through a thick meningeal membrane. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2009, 1616-1618.IEEE. doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5333221.

Kozai, T.D.Y., & Kipke, D.R. (2009). Insertion shuttle with carboxyl terminated self-assembled monolayer coatings for implanting flexible polymer neural probes in the brain. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, 184(2), 199-205.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2009.08.002.

Michelson, N.J., Eles, J.R., Vazquez, A.L., Ludwig, K.A., & Kozai, T.D.Y. Calcium activation of cortical neurons by continuous electrical stimulation: Frequency-dependence, temporal fidelity and activation density. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. doi: 10.1101/338525.

Stieger, K.C., Eles, J.R., Ludwig, K.A., & Kozai, T.D.Y. In vivo microstimulation with cathodic and anodic asymmetric waveforms modulates spatiotemporal calcium dynamics in cortical neuropil and pyramidal neurons of male mice. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. doi: 10.1101/2019.12.16.878892.

Trevathan, J.K., Asp, A.J., Nicolai, E.N., Trevathan, J.M., Kremer, N.A., Kozai, T.D., Cheng, D., Schachter, M., Nassi, J.J., Otte, S.L., Parker, J.G., Lujan, J.L., & Ludwig, K.A. Calcium imaging in freely-moving mice during electrical stimulation of deep brain structures. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. doi: 10.1101/460220.

Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Kozai, T.D.Y., Weber, D.J., Cui, X.T., Erdos, G., Ozdoganlar, O.B., & Fedder, G.K. (2012). An ultra-compliant, scalable neural probe with molded biodissolvable delivery vehicle. In 2012 IEEE 25th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), (pp. 56-59).IEEE. doi: 10.1109/memsys.2012.6170092.

Research interests

Brain Computer Interface
Elucidating how biological...
Medical Device Design
Neural Engineering
Neural Interface
Two Photon Microscopy