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Janet Stout

Associate Professor
Civil & Environmental Engr

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Alexander, K.J., Furlong, J.L., Baron, J.L., Rihs, J.D., Stephenson, D., Perry, J.D., & Stout, J.E. (2021). Evaluation of a new culture medium for isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria from environmental water samples. PLOS ONE, 16(3), e0247166.Public Library of Science (PLoS). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247166.

Hirsh, M., Baron, J.L., Mietzner, S., Rihs, J.D., & Stout, J.E. (2021). Cross-reactivity of the IDEXX Legiolert method with other Gram-negative bacteria and waterborne pathogens leads to false-positive assay results. LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, 72(6), 750-756.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/lam.13469.

Baron, J.L., Morris, L., & Stout, J.E. (2020). Control of Legionella in hospital potable water systems. In Decontamination in Hospitals and Healthcare. (pp. 71-100).Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-08-102565-9.00004-2.

Hirsh, M.B., Baron, J.L., Mietzner, S.M., Rihs, J.D., Yassin, M.H., & Stout, J.E. (2020). Evaluation of Recommended Water Sample Collection Methods and the Impact of Holding Time on Legionella Recovery and Variability from Healthcare Building Water Systems. MICROORGANISMS, 8(11), 1770.MDPI AG. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8111770.

Ma, X., Pierre, D., Bibby, K., & Stout, J.E. (2020). Bacterial community structure correlates with Legionella pneumophila colonization of New York City high rise building premises plumbing systems. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY, 6(5), 1324-1335.Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). doi: 10.1039/c9ew01084j.

Parkinson, J., Baron, J.L., Hall, B., Bos, H., Racine, P., Wagener, M.M., & Stout, J.E. (2020). Point-of-use filters for prevention of health care-acquired Legionnaires' disease: Field evaluation of a new filter product and literature review. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 48(2), 132-138.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2019.09.006.

Orkis, L.T., Peterson, E.R., Brooks, M.M., Mertz, K.J., Harrison, L.H., Stout, J.E., & Greene, S.K. (2019). Simulation of Legionnaires' disease prospective spatiotemporal cluster detection, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 147, e29.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1017/S0950268818002789.

Pierre, D., Baron, J.L., Ma, X., Sidari, F.P., Wagener, M.M., & Stout, J.E. (2019). Water Quality as a Predictor of Legionella Positivity of Building Water Systems. PATHOGENS, 8(4), 295.MDPI AG. doi: 10.3390/pathogens8040295.

Orkis, L.T., Harrison, L.H., Mertz, K.J., Brooks, M.M., Bibby, K.J., & Stout, J.E. (2018). Environmental sources of community-acquired legionnaires' disease: A review. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYGIENE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 221(5), 764-774.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.04.013.

Orkis, L.T., Mertz, K.J., Brooks, M.M., Wadowsky, R.M., Gatto, S., Marsh, J.W., Ezeonwuku, C.D., Bibby, K.J., Harrison, L.H., & Stout, J.E. (2018). Cooling Tower Maintenance Practices and Legionella Prevalence, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2016. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 81(5), 16-24.

Pierre, D.M., Baron, J., Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2017). Diagnostic testing for Legionnaires' disease. ANNALS OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND ANTIMICROBIALS, 16(1), 59.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1186/s12941-017-0229-6.

Baron, J.L., Harris, J.K., Holinger, E.P., Duda, S., Stevens, M.J., Robertson, C.E., Ross, K.A., Pace, N.R., & Stout, J.E. (2015). Effect of monochloramine treatment on the microbial ecology of Legionella and associated bacterial populations in a hospital hot water system. SYSTEMATIC AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, 38(3), 198-205.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.syapm.2015.02.006.

Duda, S., Baron, J.L., Wagener, M.M., Vidic, R.D., & Stout, J.E. (2015). Lack of correlation between Legionella colonization and microbial population quantification using heterotrophic plate count and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence measurement. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, 187(7), 393.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s10661-015-4612-5.

Ma, X., Baron, J.L., Vikram, A., Stout, J.E., & Bibby, K. (2015). Fungal diversity and presence of potentially pathogenic fungi in a hospital hot water system treated with on-site monochloramine. WATER RESEARCH, 71, 197-206.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.12.052.

Baron, J.L., Peters, T., Shafer, R., MacMurray, B., & Stout, J.E. (2014). Field evaluation of a new point-of-use faucet filter for preventing exposure to Legionella and other waterborne pathogens in health care facilities. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 42(11), 1193-1196.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.08.002.

Baron, J.L., Vikram, A., Duda, S., Stout, J.E., & Bibby, K. (2014). Shift in the Microbial Ecology of a Hospital Hot Water System following the Introduction of an On-Site Monochloramine Disinfection System. In Bereswill, S. (Ed.). PLOS ONE, 9(7), e102679.Public Library of Science (PLoS). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102679.

Duda, S., Kandiah, S., Stout, J.E., Baron, J.L., Yassin, M., Fabrizio, M., Ferrelli, J., Hariri, R., Wagener, M.M., Goepfert, J., Bond, J., Hannigan, J., & Rogers, D. (2014). Evaluation of a New Monochloramine Generation System for Controlling Legionella in Building Hot Water Systems. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 35(11), 1356-1363.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/678418.

III, S.F.P., Stout, J.E., Duda, S., Grubb, D., & Neuner, A. (2014). Maintaining Legionella control in building water systems. JOURNAL AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, 106(10), 24-32.Wiley. doi: 10.5942/jawwa.2014.106.0147.

Pierre, D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2014). Editorial commentary: Risk assessment and prediction for health care-associated Legionnaires' disease: Percent distal site positivity as a cut-point. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 42(11), 1248-1250.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.06.032.

Pierre, D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2014). Editorial commentary: Risk assessment and prediction for health care-associated Legionnaires' disease: Percent distal site positivity as a cut-point. American Journal of Infection Control, 42(11), 1248-1250. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.06.032.

D'Antonio, N.N., Rihs, J.D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2013). Computer keyboard covers impregnated with a novel antimicrobial polymer significantly reduce microbial contamination. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 41(4), 337-339.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2012.03.030.

Kandiah, S., Yassin, M.H., & Stout, J. (2013). Monochloramine use for prevention of Legionella in hospital water systems. Infect Disord Drug Targets, 13(3), 184-190.Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. doi: 10.2174/1871526511313030006.

Marchesi, I., Ferranti, G., Bargellini, A., Marchegiano, P., Predieri, G., Stout, J.E., & Borella, P. (2013). Monochloramine and chlorine dioxide for controlling Legionella pneumophila contamination: biocide levels and disinfection by-product formation in hospital water networks. JOURNAL OF WATER AND HEALTH, 11(4), 738-747.IWA Publishing. doi: 10.2166/wh.2013.079.

Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2012). Legionellosis in nursing homes and long-term care facilities: What the Slovenian experience can teach us. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 44(9), 716-719.Informa UK Limited. doi: 10.3109/00365548.2012.713118.

D'Antonio, N., Rihs, J.D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2011). Letter in response to "Revisiting the hand wipe versus gel rub debate: Is a higher ethanol content hand wipe more effective than an ethanol gel rub?" Response. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 39(3), 261-262.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.02.004.

Duda, S., Stout, J.E., & Vidic, R. (2011). Biological control in cooling water systems using nonchemical treatment devices. HVAC&R RESEARCH, 17(5), 872-890. doi: 10.1080/10789669.2011.587588.

Lin, Y.E., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2011). Controlling Legionella in Hospital Drinking Water: An Evidence-Based Review of Disinfection Methods. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 32(2), 166-173.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/657934.

Lin, Y.E., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2011). Prevention of hospital-acquired legionellosis. CURRENT OPINION IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 24(4), 350-356.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e3283486c6e.

D'Antonio, N.N., Rihs, J.D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2010). Revisiting the hand wipe versus gel rub debate: Is a higher-ethanol content hand wipe more effective than an ethanol gel rub?. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 38(9), 678-682.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2010.07.002.

Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2010). Environmental culturing for Legionella: Can we build a better mouse trap?. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 38(5), 341-343.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2010.02.002.

Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2010). Legionella in an Ice Machine May Be a Sentinel for Drinking Water Contamination. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 31(3), 317.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/651067.

Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2009). Rapid Diagnostic Testing for Community-Acquired Pneumonia Can Innovative Technology for Clinical Microbiology Be Exploited?. CHEST, 136(6), 1618-1621.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1378/chest.09-0939.

Zhang, Z., Mccann, C., Hanrahan, J., Jencson, A., Joyce, D., Fyffe, S., Piesczynski, S., Hawks, R., Stout, J.E., Yu, V.L., & Vidic, R.D. (2009). Legionella control by chlorine dioxide in hospital water systems. JOURNAL AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, 101(5), 117-+.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/j.1551-8833.2009.tb09894.x.

Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2008). Community-acquired legionnaires disease: Implications for underdiagnosis and laboratory testing. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 46(9), 1365-1367.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1086/586742.

Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2008). Preservation of culture collections [1]. Microbe, 3(1), 1.

Stout, J.E. (2007). Preventing Legionellosis. ASHRAE Journal, 49(10), 58-62.

Stout, J.E., Muder, R.R., Mietzner, S., Wagener, M.M., Perri, M.B., DeRoos, K., Goodrich, D., Arnold, W., Williamson, T., Ruark, O., Treadway, C., Eckstein, E.C., Marshall, D., Rafferty, M.E., Sarro, K., Page, J., Jenkins, R., Oda, G., Shimoda, K.J., Zervos, M.J., Bittner, M., Camhi, S.L., Panwalker, A.P., Donskey, C.J., Nguyen, M.H., Holodniy, M., Yu, V.L., & Grp, L.S. (2007). Role of environmental surveillance in determining the risk of hospital-acquired legionellosis: A national surveillance study with clinical correlations. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 28(7), 818-824.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/518754.

Zhang, Z., McCann, C., Stout, J.E., Piesczynski, S., Hawks, R., Vidic, R., & Yu, V.L. (2007). Safety and efficacy of chlorine dioxide for Legionella control in a hospital water system. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 28(8), 1009-1012.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/518847.

Liu, Z., Lin, Y.E., Stout, J.E., Hwang, C.C., Vidic, R.D., & Yu, V.L. (2006). Effect of flow regimes on the presence of Legionella within the biofilm of a model plumbing system. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, 101(2), 437-442.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02970.x.

Muder, R.R., Brennen, C., Rihs, J.D., Wagener, M.M., Obman, A., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2006). Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from the urinary tract: Association of isolation with symptomatic urinary tract infection and subsequent staphylococcal bacteremia. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 42(1), 46-50.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1086/498518.

Sheffer, P.J., Stout, J.E., Wagener, M.M., & Muder, R.R. (2005). Efficacy of new point-of-use water filter for preventing exposure to Legionella and waterborne bacteria. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 33(5), S20-S25.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2005.03.012.

Squier, C.L., Stout, J.E., Krsytofiak, S., McMahon, J., Wagener, M.M., Dixon, B., & Yu, V.L. (2005). A proactive approach to prevention of health care-acquired Legionnaires' disease: The Allegheny County (Pittsburgh) experience. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 33(6), 360-367.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2005.01.012.

Stout, J.E., Sens, K., Mietzner, S., Obman, A., & Yu, V.L. (2005). Comparative activity of quinolones, macrolides and ketolides against Legionella species using in vitro broth dilution and intracellular susceptibility testing. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 25(4), 302-307.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2004.08.019.

Husain, S., Kwak, E.J., Obman, A., Wagener, M.M., Kusne, S., Stout, J.E., McCurry, K.R., & Singh, N. (2004). Prospective assessment of Platelia (TM) Aspergillus galactomannan antigen for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, 4(5), 796-802.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00415.x.

Kwak, E.J., Husain, S., Obman, A., Meinke, L., Stout, J., Kusne, S., Wagener, M.M., & Singh, N. (2004). Efficacy of galactomannan antigen in the platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 42(1), 435-438.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.1.435-438.2004.

Sidari, F.P., Stout, J.E., Vanbriesen, J.M., Bowman, A.M., Grubb, D., Neuner, A., Wagener, M.M., & Yu, V.L. (2004). Keeping Legionella out of water systems. JOURNAL AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, 96(1), 111-119.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/j.1551-8833.2004.tb10538.x.

Singh, N., Obman, A., Husain, S., Aspinall, S., Mietzner, S., & Stout, J.E. (2004). Reactivity of Platelia Aspergillus galactomannan antigen with piperacillin-tazobactam: Clinical implications based on achievable concentrations in serum. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, 48(6), 1989-1992.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.6.1989-1992.2004.

Singh, N., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2004). Prevention of Legionnaires' disease in transplant recipients: recommendations for a standardized approach. Transpl Infect Dis, 6(2), 58-62.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2004.062_2.x.

Stout, J.E., & Muder, R.R. (2004). Legionella in residential water systems. ASHRAE JOURNAL, 46(5), 52-54.

Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2004). Legionella anisa and hospital water systems. J Infect Chemother, 10(2), 133.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1007/s10156-003-0295-x.

Yu, V.L., Greenberg, R.N., Zadeikis, N., Stout, J.E., Khashab, A.A., Olson, W.H., & Tennenberg, A.M. (2004). Levofloxacin efficacy in the treatment of community-acquired legionellosis. CHEST, 125(6), 2135-2139.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1378/chest.125.6.2135.

Marrie, T.J., de Carolis, E., Yu, V.L., & Stout, J. (2003). Legionnaires' Disease - Results of a Multicenter Canadian Study. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 14(3), 154-158.Hindawi Limited. doi: 10.1155/2003/951567.

Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2003). Hospital-acquired Legionnaires' disease: new developments. CURRENT OPINION IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 16(4), 337-341.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1097/00001432-200308000-00005.

Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2003). Experiences of the first 16 hospitals using copper-silver ionization for Legionella control: Implications for the evaluation of other disinfection modalities. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 24(8), 563-568.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/502251.

Lin, Y.S.E., Vidic, R.D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2002). Negative effect of high pH on biocidal efficacy of copper and silver ions in controlling Legionella pneumophila. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 68(6), 2711-2715.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.68.6.2711-2715.2002.

Mietzner, S.M., & Stout, J.E. (2002). Laboratory detection of Legionella in environmental samples. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 24(11), 81-85.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/s0196-4399(02)80017-4.

Pedro-Botet, M.L., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2002). Legionnaires' disease contracted from patient homes: The coming of the third plague?. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY & INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 21(10), 699-705.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s10096-002-0813-2.

Singh, N., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2002). Legionnaires' disease in a transplant recipient acquired from the patient's home: Implications for management. TRANSPLANTATION, 74(6), 755-756.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1097/00007890-200209270-00003.

Squier, C., Rihs, J.D., Risa, K.J., Sagnimeni, A., Wagener, M.M., Stout, J., Muder, R.R., & Singh, N. (2002). Staphylococcus aureus rectal carriage and its association with infections in patients in a surgical intensive care unit and a liver transplant unit. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 23(9), 495-501.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/502095.

Yu, V.L., Plouffe, J.F., Pastoris, M.C., Stout, J.E., Schousboe, M., Widmer, A., Summersgill, J., File, T., Heath, C.M., Paterson, D.L., & Chereshsky, A. (2002). Distribution of Legionella species and serogroups isolated by culture in patients with sporadic community-acquired legionellosis: An international collaborative survey. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 186(1), 127-128.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1086/341087.

Drenning, S.D., Stout, J.E., Joly, J.R., & Yu, V.L. (2001). Unexpected similarity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of unrelated clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 183(4), 628-632.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1086/318525.

Gao, Y., Zhou, P., Lin, Y.E., Vidic, R.D., & Stout, J.E. (2001). Efficacy of DBNPA against legionella pneumophila: Experimental results in a model water system. ASHRAE Transactions, 107 PART. 1(1), 184-190.

Stout, J.E., & Rihs, J.D. (2001). Legionellosis. In Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. (pp. 635-652).

Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2001). Legionella in the hospital water supply: A plea for decision making based on evidence-based medicine. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 22(11), 670-672.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/501842.

Tan, J.S., File, T.M., DiPersio, J.R., DiPersio, L.P., Hamor, R., Saravolatz, L.D., & Stout, J.E. (2001). Persistently positive culture results in a patient with community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 32(11), 1562-1566.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1086/320526.

Chang, F.Y., Singh, N., Gayowski, T., Wagener, M.M., Mietzner, S.M., Stout, J.E., & Marino, I.R. (2000). Thrombocytopenia in liver transplant recipients - Predictors, impact on fungal infections, and role of endogenous thrombopoietin. TRANSPLANTATION, 69(1), 70-75.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1097/00007890-200001150-00014.

McEllistrem, M.C., Stout, J.E., & Harrison, L.H. (2000). Simplified protocol for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 38(1), 351-353.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/JCM.38.1.351-353.2000.

Muder, R.R., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (2000). Nosocomial Legionella micdadei infection in transplant patients: Fortune favors the prepared mind. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 108(4), 346-348.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00320-X.

Squier, C., Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2000). Waterborne Nosocomial Infections. Curr Infect Dis Rep, 2(6), 490-496.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s11908-000-0049-1.

Stout, J.E. (2000). Laboratory diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease: The expanding role of the Legionella urinary antigen test. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 22(8), 62-64.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/s0196-4399(00)88851-0.

Stout, J.E., Brennen, C., & Muder, R.R. (2000). Legionnaires' disease in a newly constructed long-term care facility. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, 48(12), 1589-1592.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2000.tb03868.x.

Yu, V.L., & Stout, J.E. (2000). Hospital characteristics associated with colonization of water systems by Legionella and risk of nosocomial legionnaires' disease: a cohort study of 15 hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 21(7), 434-435. doi: 10.1086/503229.

Lin, A., Stout, J.E., Rihs, J.D., Vickers, R.M., & Yu, V.L. (1999). Improved Legionella selective media by the addition of fluconazole: Results of in vitro testing and clinical evaluation. DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE, 34(3), 173-175.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/S0732-8893(99)00030-9.

Loeb, M., Simor, A.E., Mandell, L., Krueger, P., McArthur, M., James, M., Walter, S., Richardson, E., Lingley, M., Stout, J., Stronach, D., & McGeer, A. (1999). Two nursing home outbreaks of respiratory infection with Legionella sainthelensi. J Am Geriatr Soc, 47(5), 547-552.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb02568.x.

Edelstein, P.H. (1998). Legionnaires' disease. N Engl J Med, 338(3), 200-201.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199801153380317.

Goetz, A.M., Stout, J.E., Jacobs, S.L., Fisher, M.A., Ponzer, R.E., Drenning, S., & Yu, V.L. (1998). Nosocomial legionnaires' disease discovered in community hospitals following cultures of the water system: Seek and ye shall find. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 26(1), 8-11.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/S0196-6553(98)70054-9.

Lin, Y.E., Vidic, R.D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1998). Legionella in water distribution systems. JOURNAL AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, 90(9), 112-121.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/j.1551-8833.1998.tb08503.x.

Lin, Y.S., Stout, J.E., Yu, V.L., & Vidic, R.D. (1998). Disinfection of water distribution systems for Legionella. Semin Respir Infect, 13(2), 147-159.

Lin, Y.S.E., Vidic, R.D., Stout, J.E., McCartney, C.A., & Yu, V.L. (1998). Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium by copper and silver ions. WATER RESEARCH, 32(7), 1997-2000.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00460-0.

Liu, Z.M., Stout, J.E., Boldin, M., Rugh, J., Diven, W.F., & Yu, V.L. (1998). Intermittent use of copper-silver ionization for Legionella control in water distribution systems: A potential option in buildings housing individuals at low risk of infection. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 26(1), 138-140.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1086/516283.

Stout, J.E., Arnold, B., & Yu, V.L. (1998). Activity of azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and erythromycin against Legionella species by intracellular susceptibility testing in HL-60 cells. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 41(2), 289-291.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1093/jac/41.2.289.

Stout, J.E., Arnold, B., & Yu, V.L. (1998). Comparative activity of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and erythromycin against Legionella species by broth microdilution and intracellular susceptibility testing in HL-60 cells. DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE, 30(1), 37-43.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/S0732-8893(97)00174-0.

Stout, J.E., Lin, Y.S.E., Goetz, A.M., & Muder, R.R. (1998). Controlling Legionella in hospital water systems: Experience with the superheat-and-flush method and copper-silver ionization. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 19(12), 911-914.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.2307/30142016.

Muder, R.R., Brennen, C., Drenning, S.D., Stout, J.E., & Wagener, M.M. (1997). Multiply antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli in a long-term-care facility: A case-control study of patient risk factors and prior antibiotic use. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 18(12), 809-813.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1017/s0195941700086513.

Muder, R.R., Brennen, C., Drenning, S.D., Stout, J.E., & Wagener, M.M. (1997). Multiply Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in a Long-Term-Care Facility: A Case-Control Study of Patient Risk Factors and Prior Antibiotic Use. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 18(12), 809-813.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.2307/30141338.

Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1997). Legionellosis. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 337(10), 682-687.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199709043371006.

Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1997). Eradicating Legionella from hospital water. JAMA, 278(17), 1404-1405.American Medical Association (AMA). doi: 10.1001/jama.1997.03550170034024.

Chang, F.Y., Jacobs, S.L., Colodny, S.M., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1996). Nosocomial legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5: Laboratory and epidemiologic implications. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 174(5), 1116-1119.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1093/infdis/174.5.1116.

Chang, F.Y., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1996). Assessment of enzyme immunoassay versus radioimmunoassay for detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in frozen urine specimens. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 34(10), 2628-2629.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/JCM.34.10.2628-2629.1996.

Lin, Y.S.E., Vidic, R.D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1996). Individual and combined effects of copper and silver ions on inactivation of Legionella pneumophila. WATER RESEARCH, 30(8), 1905-1913.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/0043-1354(96)00077-2.

LIU, Z.M., STOUT, J.E., TEDESCO, L., BOLDIN, M., HWANG, C., & YU, V.L. (1995). EFFICACY OF ULTRAVIOLET-LIGHT IN PREVENTING LEGIONELLA COLONIZATION OF A HOSPITAL WATER DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEM. WATER RESEARCH, 29(10), 2275-2280.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/0043-1354(95)00048-P.

TA, A.C., STOUT, J.E., YU, V.L., & WAGENER, M.M. (1995). COMPARISON OF CULTURE METHODS FOR MONITORING LEGIONELLA SPECIES IN-HOSPITAL POTABLE WATER-SYSTEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STANDARDIZATION OF SUCH METHODS. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 33(8), 2118-2123.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/JCM.33.8.2118-2123.1995.

GEORGHIOU, P.R., DOGGETT, A.M., KIELHOFNER, M.A., STOUT, J.E., WATSON, D.A., LUPSKI, J.R., & HAMILL, R.J. (1994). MOLECULAR FINGERPRINTING OF LEGIONELLA SPECIES BY REPETITIVE ELEMENT PCR. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 32(12), 2989-2994.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/JCM.32.12.2989-2994.1994.

LIU, Z.M., STOUT, J.E., TEDESCO, L., BOLDIN, M., HWANG, C., DIVEN, W.F., & YU, V.L. (1994). CONTROLLED EVALUATION OF COPPER-SILVER IONIZATION IN ERADICATING LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA FROM A HOSPITAL WATER DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEM. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 169(4), 919-922.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1093/infdis/169.4.919.

AEBA, R., STOUT, J.E., FRANCALANCIA, N.A., KEENAN, R.J., DUNCAN, A.J., YOUSEM, S.A., BURCKART, G.J., YU, V.L., & GRIFFITH, B.P. (1993). ASPECTS OF LUNG TRANSPLANTATION THAT CONTRIBUTE TO INCREASED SEVERITY OF PNEUMONIA - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY. JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY, 106(3), 449-457.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/s0022-5223(19)34078-4.

Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1993). Legionnaire's disease and water distribution systems. Infectious Diseases Newsletter, 12(4), 25-28.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/0278-2316(93)90023-k.

YU, V.L., LIU, Z.M., STOUT, J.E., & GOETZ, A. (1993). LEGIONELLA DISINFECTION OF WATER DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEMS - PRINCIPLES, PROBLEMS, AND PRACTICE. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 14(10), 567-570.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1086/646638.

Addiss, D.G., & Davis, J.P. (1992). Sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease. N Engl J Med, 326(25), 1699.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199206183262512.

STOUT, J.E., YU, V.L., MURACA, P., JOLY, J., TROUP, N., & TOMPKINS, L.S. (1992). POTABLE WATER AS A CAUSE OF SPORADIC CASES OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED LEGIONNAIRES-DISEASE. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 326(3), 151-155.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199201163260302.

STOUT, J.E., YU, V.L., YEE, Y.C., VACCARELLO, S., DIVEN, W., & LEE, T.C. (1992). LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN RESIDENTIAL WATER-SUPPLIES - ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE WITH CLINICAL-ASSESSMENT FOR LEGIONNAIRES-DISEASE. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 109(1), 49-57.

VICKERS, R.M., STOUT, J.E., TOMPKINS, L.S., TROUP, N.J., & YU, V.L. (1992). CEFAMANDOLE-SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA SEROGROUP-1 - IMPLICATIONS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND UTILITY AS AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC MARKER. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 30(3), 537-539.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/JCM.30.3.537-539.1992.

Nguyen, M.H., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1991). Legionellosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am, 5(3), 561-584.

FANG, G.D., STOUT, J.E., YU, V.L., GOETZ, A., RIHS, J.D., & VICKERS, R.M. (1990). COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA CAUSED BY LEGIONELLA DUMOFFII IN A PATIENT WITH HAIRY-CELL LEUKEMIA. INFECTION, 18(6), 383-385.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/BF01646415.

VICKERS, R.M., STOUT, J.E., & YU, V.L. (1990). FAILURE OF A DIAGNOSTIC MONOCLONAL IMMUNOFLUORESCENT REAGENT TO DETECT LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN ENVIRONMENTAL-SAMPLES. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 56(9), 2912-2914.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.56.9.2912-2914.1990.

LEE, T.C., STOUT, J.E., & YU, V.L. (1988). FACTORS PREDISPOSING TO LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA COLONIZATION IN RESIDENTIAL WATER-SYSTEMS. ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 43(1), 59-62.Informa UK Limited. doi: 10.1080/00039896.1988.9934375.

Muraca, P.W., Stout, J.E., Yu, V.L., & Yee, Y.C. (1988). Legionnaires' disease in the work environment: implications for environmental health. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 49(11), 584-590.Informa UK Limited. doi: 10.1080/15298668891380268.

MURACA, P.W., YU, V.L., & STOUT, J.E. (1988). ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LEGIONNAIRES-DISEASE. JOURNAL AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, 80(2), 78-86.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/j.1551-8833.1988.tb02996.x.

STOUT, J.E., JOLY, J., PARA, M., PLOUFFE, J., CIESIELSKI, C., BLASER, M.J., & YU, V.L. (1988). COMPARISON OF MOLECULAR METHODS FOR SUBTYPING PATIENTS AND EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY LINKED ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 157(3), 486-495.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1093/infdis/157.3.486.

MURACA, P., STOUT, J.E., & YU, V.L. (1987). COMPARATIVE-ASSESSMENT OF CHLORINE, HEAT, OZONE, AND UV-LIGHT FOR KILLING LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA WITHIN A MODEL PLUMBING SYSTEM. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 53(2), 447-453.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.53.2.447-453.1987.

Stout, J.E., Yu, V.L., & Muraca, P. (1987). Legionnaires' disease acquired within the homes of two patients. Link to the home water supply. JAMA, 257(9), 1215-1217.American Medical Association (AMA). doi: 10.1001/jama.1987.03390090087029.

Vickers, R.M., Stout, J.E., Yu, V.L., & Rihs, J.D. (1987). Manual of culture methodology for Legionella. Semin Respir Infect, 2(4), 274-279.

STOUT, J.E., BEST, M.G., & YU, V.L. (1986). SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY LEGIONELLACEAE TO THERMAL-STRESS - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEAT ERADICATION METHODS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEMS. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 52(2), 396-399.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.52.2.396-399.1986.

STOUT, J.E., BEST, M.G., YU, V.L., & RIHS, J.D. (1986). A NOTE ON SYMBIOSIS OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA AND TATLOCKIA-MICDADEI WITH HUMAN RESPIRATORY FLORA. JOURNAL OF APPLIED BACTERIOLOGY, 60(4), 297-299.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1986.tb01736.x.

BEST, M.G., STOUT, J.E., YU, V.L., & MUDER, R.R. (1985). TATLOCKIA-MICDADEI (PITTSBURGH PNEUMONIA AGENT) GROWTH-KINETICS MAY EXPLAIN ITS INFREQUENT ISOLATION FROM WATER AND THE LOW PREVALENCE OF PITTSBURGH PNEUMONIA. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 49(6), 1521-1522.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.49.6.1521-1522.1985.

STOUT, J.E., YU, V.L., & BEST, M.G. (1985). ECOLOGY OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA WITHIN WATER DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEMS. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 49(1), 221-228.American Society for Microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.49.1.221-228.1985.

STOUT, J.E., YU, V.L., & MURACA, P. (1985). ISOLATION OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA FROM THE COLD WATER OF HOSPITAL ICE MACHINES - IMPLICATIONS FOR ORIGIN AND TRANSMISSION OF THE ORGANISM. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 6(4), 141-146.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1017/S0195941700062937.

Best, M., Yu, V.L., Stout, J., Goetz, A., Muder, R.R., & Taylor, F. (1983). Legionellaceae in the hospital water-supply. Epidemiological link with disease and evaluation of a method for control of nosocomial legionnaires' disease and Pittsburgh pneumonia. Lancet, 2(8345), 307-310.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(83)90290-8.

STOUT, J., YU, V.L., VICKERS, R.M., & SHONNARD, J. (1982). POTABLE WATER-SUPPLY AS THE HOSPITAL RESERVOIR FOR PITTSBURGH PNEUMONIA AGENT. LANCET, 1(8270), 471-472.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(82)91449-0.

STOUT, J., YU, V.L., VICKERS, R.M., ZURAVLEFF, J., BEST, M., BROWN, A., YEE, R.B., & WADOWSKY, R. (1982). UBIQUITOUSNESS OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN THE WATER-SUPPLY OF A HOSPITAL WITH ENDEMIC LEGIONNAIRES-DISEASE. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 306(8), 466-468.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198202253060807.

Walter, C.W. (1982). Legionella pneumophila in a hospital water supply. N Engl J Med, 307(6), 379-380.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/nejm198208053070621.

Brown, A., Shonnard, J.W., Geyer, S.J., Rihs, J., Elder, E., Stout, J., Vickers, R., & Yu, V. (1981). Coincident infection with legionnaires' disease bacterium and Pittsburgh pneumonia agent. Lancet, 2(8254), 1041.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(81)91231-9.

Zhang, Z., Stout, J.E., Yu, V.L., & Vidic, R. (2008). Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems. In WATER RESEARCH, 42(1-2), (pp. 129-136).Elsevier BV.England. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.07.054.

Gao, Y., Zhou, P., Lin, Y.E., Vidic, R.D., & Stout, J.E. (2001). Efficacy of DBNPA Against Legionella pneumophila: Experimental Results in a Model Water System. In ASHRAE Winter Meeting CD, Technical and Symposium Papers, (pp. 247-253).

Nalepa, C.J., Howarth, J.N., Liimatta, E.W., Stout, J.E., & Lin, Y.E. (2001). The Activity of Oxidizing Biocides towards Legionella pneumophila and the Impact of Biofilms on its Control. In NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series, 2001-March.

Lin, Y.E., Vidic, R.D., Stout, J.E., & Yu, V.L. (1995). Effect of copper and silver ionization on Legionella pneumophila eradication. (pp. 38-46).

Liu, Z., Stout, J.E., Tedesco, L., Boldin, M.M., Hwang, C.C., & Yu, V.L. (1994). Ultraviolet light irradiation of potable water for legionella colonization in a hospital water distribution system. In ASHRAE Transactions, 100(1), (pp. 153-159).