headshot

Albert To

Professor
William Kepler Whiteford Professor
Dr. To's research group website Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science

overview

My primary research interests are in design optimization for additive manufacturing, multiscale methods, and computational mechanics. Currently, my research group is actively working on fast process modeling and topology optimization for metal additive manufacturing. I joined University of Pittsburgh in 2008 as assistant professor and was promoted to associate professor in 2014 and to full professor in 2019. I am also directing the ANSYS Additive Manufacturing Research Laboratory at Pitt, which houses several of the most advanced metal 3D printers including the EOS DMLS, Optomec LENS, and ExOne binder jetting. I did my undergraduate study at UC Berkeley and master's study at MIT. I obtained my Ph.D. from UC Berkeley under the supervision of Shaofan Li and Steve Glaser. I also conducted postdoctoral research with Wing Kam Liu at Northwestern University. My research has been supported by NASA, DOD, DOE, NSF, America Makes, ANSYS, etc. I am collaborating with the industry extensively in my computational research for additive manufacturing through the MOST-AM Consortium, which I founded in 2016 and now has 30+ member companies and research labs. I received the NSF BRIGE award in 2009, the Board of Visitors Faculty Award from my engineering school in 2016, and the Carnegie Science Award in 2018.

about

(2009) Air Force Summer Faculty Fellowship.

(2009) NSF Broadening Participation Research Initiation Grants in Engineering (BRIGE) Award.

(2003) Best Student Paper Award, 46th Acoustic Emission Working Group Meeting.

PhD, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 2005

MS, Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, 2005

MS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1999

BS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 1997

Chen, Q., Taylor, H., Takezawa, A., Liang, X., Jimenez, X., Wicker, R., & To, A.C. (2021). Island scanning pattern optimization for residual deformation mitigation in laser powder bed fusion via sequential inherent strain method and sensitivity analysis. Additive Manufacturing, 46, 102116.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102116.

Chen, Q., Zhao, Y., Strayer, S., Zhao, Y., Aoyagi, K., Koizumi, Y., Chiba, A., Xiong, W., & To, A.C. (2021). Elucidating the effect of preheating temperature on melt pool morphology variation in Inconel 718 laser powder bed fusion via simulation and experiment. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 37, 101642.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101642.

Deng, H., & To, A.C. (2021). A density-based boundary evolving method for buckling-induced design under large deformation. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, 122(7), 1770-1796.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/nme.6599.

Deng, H., & To, A.C. (2021). Reverse shape compensation via a gradient-based moving particle optimization method. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 377, 113658.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113658.

Deng, H., & To, A.C. (2021). Projection-Based Implicit Modeling Method (PIMM) for Functionally Graded Lattice Optimization. JOM, 73(7), 2012-2021.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s11837-021-04659-1.

Deng, H., & To, A.C. (2021). A Parametric Level Set Method for Topology Optimization Based on Deep Neural Network. Journal of Mechanical Design, 143(9).ASME International. doi: 10.1115/1.4050105.

Dugast, F., Apostolou, P., Fernandez, A., Dong, W., Chen, Q., Strayer, S., Wicker, R., & To, A.C. (2021). Part-scale thermal process modeling for laser powder bed fusion with matrix-free method and GPU computing. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 37, 101732.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101732.

Liang, X., Dong, W., Chen, Q., & To, A.C. (2021). On incorporating scanning strategy effects into the modified inherent strain modeling framework for laser powder bed fusion. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 37, 101648.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101648.

Liang, X., Hayduke, D., & To, A.C. (2021). An enhanced layer lumping method for accelerating simulation of metal components produced by laser powder bed fusion. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 39, 101881.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.101881.

Liang, X., To, A.C., Du, J., & Zhang, Y.J. (2021). Topology optimization of phononic-like structures using experimental material interpolation model for additive manufactured lattice infills. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 377, 113717.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2021.113717.

Baykasoglu, C., Akyildiz, O., Tunay, M., & To, A.C. (2020). A process-microstructure finite element simulation framework for predicting phase transformations and microhardness for directed energy deposition of Ti6Al4V. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 35, 101252.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101252.

Chen, Q., Liu, J., Liang, X., & To, A.C. (2020). A level-set based continuous scanning path optimization method for reducing residual stress and deformation in metal additive manufacturing. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 360, 112719.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2019.112719.

Deng, H., & To, A.C. (2020). Linear and nonlinear topology optimization design with projection-based ground structure method (P-GSM). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, 121(11), 2437-2461.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/nme.6314.

Deng, H., & To, A.C. (2020). Topology optimization based on deep representation learning (DRL) for compliance and stress-constrained design. COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, 66(2), 449-469.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00466-020-01859-5.

Deng, H., Cheng, L., Liang, X., Hayduke, D., & To, A.C. (2020). Topology optimization for energy dissipation design of lattice structures through snap-through behavior. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 358, 112641.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2019.112641.

Deng, H., Hinnebusch, S., & To, A.C. (2020). Topology optimization design of stretchable metamaterials with B?zier skeleton explicit density (BSED) representation algorithm. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 366, 113093.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113093.

Hoffman, R., Hinnebusch, S., Raikar, S., To, A.C., & Hildreth, O.J. (2020). Support Thickness, Pitch, and Applied Bias Effects on the Carbide Formation, Surface Roughness, and Material Removal of Additively Manufactured 316 L Stainless Steel. JOM, 72(12), 4254-4263.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s11837-020-04422-y.

Jimenez, X., Dong, W., Paul, S., Klecka, M.A., & To, A.C. (2020). Residual Stress Modeling with Phase Transformation for Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of B91 Steel. JOM, 72(12), 4178-4186.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s11837-020-04424-w.

Johnson, N.S., Vulimiri, P.S., To, A.C., Zhang, X., Brice, C.A., Kappes, B.B., & Stebner, A.P. (2020). Invited review: Machine learning for materials developments in metals additive manufacturing. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 36, 101641.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101641.

Liang, X., Dong, W., Hinnebusch, S., Chen, Q., Tran, H.T., Lemon, J., Cheng, L., Zhou, Z., Hayduke, D., & To, A.C. (2020). Inherent strain homogenization for fast residual deformation simulation of thin-walled lattice support structures built by laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 32, 101091.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101091.

Liu, J., & To, A.C. (2020). Computer-Aided Design-Based Topology Optimization System With Dynamic Feature Shape and Modeling History Evolution. JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN, 142(7).ASME International. doi: 10.1115/1.4045301.

Paul, S., Liu, J., Strayer, S.T., Zhao, Y., Sridar, S., Klecka, M.A., Xiong, W., & To, A.C. (2020). A Discrete Dendrite Dynamics Model for Epitaxial Columnar Grain Growth in Metal Additive Manufacturing with Application to Inconel. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 36, 101611.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101611.

Takezawa, A., To, A.C., Chen, Q., Liang, X., Dugast, F., Zhang, X., & Kitamura, M. (2020). Sensitivity analysis and lattice density optimization for sequential inherent strain method used in additive manufacturing process. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 370, 113231.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113231.

Tran, H.T., Chen, Q., Mohan, J., & To, A.C. (2020). A new method for predicting cracking at the interface between solid and lattice support during laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 32, 101050.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101050.

Tran, H.T., Liang, X., & To, A.C. (2020). Efficient prediction of cracking at solid-lattice support interface during laser powder bed fusion via global-local J-integral analysis based on modified inherent strain method and lattice support homogenization. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 36, 101590.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101590.

Zou, R., Liang, X., Chen, Q., Wang, M., Zaghloul, M.A.S., Lan, H., Buric, M.P., Ohodnicki, P.R., Chorpening, B., To, A.C., & Chen, K.P. (2020). A Digital Twin Approach to Study Additive Manufacturing Processing Using Embedded Optical Fiber Sensors and Numerical Modeling. JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, 38(22), 6402-6411.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi: 10.1109/JLT.2020.3010722.

Chen, Q., Liang, X., Hayduke, D., Liu, J., Cheng, L., Oskin, J., Whitmore, R., & To, A.C. (2019). An inherent strain based multiscale modeling framework for simulating part-scale residual deformation for direct metal laser sintering. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 28, 406-418.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.05.021.

Cheng, L., & To, A. (2019). Part-scale build orientation optimization for minimizing residual stress and support volume for metal additive manufacturing: Theory and experimental validation. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, 113, 1-23.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cad.2019.03.004.

Cheng, L., Bai, J., & To, A.C. (2019). Functionally graded lattice structure topology optimization for the design of additive manufactured components with stress constraints. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 344, 334-359.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2018.10.010.

Cheng, L., Liang, X., Bai, J., Chen, Q., Lemon, J., & To, A. (2019). On utilizing topology optimization to design support structure to prevent residual stress induced build failure in laser powder bed metal additive manufacturing. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 27, 290-304.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.03.001.

Deng, H., Cheng, L., & To, A.C. (2019). Distortion energy-based topology optimization design of hyperelastic materials. STRUCTURAL AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION, 59(6), 1895-1913.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00158-018-2161-6.

Liang, X., Chen, Q., Cheng, L., Hayduke, D., & To, A.C. (2019). Modified inherent strain method for efficient prediction of residual deformation in direct metal laser sintered components. COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, 64(6), 1719-1733.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00466-019-01748-6.

Liu, J., Chen, Q., Liang, X., & To, A.C. (2019). Manufacturing cost constrained topology optimization for additive manufacturing. FRONTIERS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, 14(2), 213-221.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s11465-019-0536-z.

Baykasoglu, C., Akyildiz, O., Candemir, D., Yang, Q., & To, A.C. (2018). Predicting Microstructure Evolution During Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V. JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, 140(5).ASME International. doi: 10.1115/1.4038894.

Cheng, L., Liang, X., Belski, E., Wang, X., Sietins, J.M., Ludwick, S., & To, A. (2018). Natural Frequency Optimization of Variable-Density Additive Manufactured Lattice Structure: Theory and Experimental Validation. JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, 140(10).ASME International. doi: 10.1115/1.4040622.

Cheng, L., Liu, J., & To, A.C. (2018). Concurrent lattice infill with feature evolution optimization for additive manufactured heat conduction design. STRUCTURAL AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION, 58(2), 511-535.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00158-018-1905-7.

Cheng, L., Liu, J., Liang, X., & To, A.C. (2018). Coupling lattice structure topology optimization with design-dependent feature evolution for additive manufactured heat conduction design. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 332, 408-439.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2017.12.024.

Liang, X., Cheng, L., Chen, Q., Yang, Q., & To, A.C. (2018). A modified method for estimating inherent strains from detailed process simulation for fast residual distortion prediction of single-walled structures fabricated by directed energy deposition. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 23, 471-486.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.08.029.

Liu, J., Gaynor, A.T., Chen, S., Kang, Z., Suresh, K., Takezawa, A., Li, L., Kato, J., Tang, J., Wang, C.C.L., Cheng, L., Liang, X., & To, A.C. (2018). Current and future trends in topology optimization for additive manufacturing. STRUCTURAL AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION, 57(6), 2457-2483.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00158-018-1994-3.

Liu, J., Yu, H., & To, A.C. (2018). Porous structure design through Blinn transformation-based level set method. STRUCTURAL AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION, 57(2), 849-864.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00158-017-1786-1.

Lynch, M.E., Mordasky, M., Cheng, L., & To, A. (2018). Design, testing, and mechanical behavior of additively manufactured casing with optimized lattice structure. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 22, 462-471.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.05.021.

Wang, X., Zhang, P., Ludwick, S., Belski, E., & To, A.C. (2018). Natural frequency optimization of 3D printed variable-density honeycomb structure via a homogenization-based approach. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 20, 189-198.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2017.10.001.

Yang, X., Wu, S., Xu, J., Cao, B., & To, A.C. (2018). Spurious heat conduction behavior of finite-size graphene nanoribbon under extreme uniaxial strain caused by the AIREBO potential. PHYSICA E-LOW-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS & NANOSTRUCTURES, 96, 46-53.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2017.10.006.

Biyikli, E., & To, A.C. (2017). Multiresolution molecular mechanics: Implementation and efficiency. JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS, 328, 27-45.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2016.10.010.

Cheng, L., Zhang, P., Biyikli, E., Bai, J., Robbins, J., & To, A. (2017). Efficient design optimization of variable-density cellular structures for additive manufacturing: theory and experimental validation. RAPID PROTOTYPING JOURNAL, 23(4), 660-677.Emerald. doi: 10.1108/RPJ-04-2016-0069.

Liu, J., & To, A.C. (2017). Topology optimization for hybrid additive-subtractive manufacturing. STRUCTURAL AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION, 55(4), 1281-1299.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00158-016-1565-4.

Liu, J., & To, A.C. (2017). Deposition path planning-integrated structural topology optimization for 3D additive manufacturing subject to self-support constraint. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, 91, 27-45.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cad.2017.05.003.

Liu, J., & To, A.C. (2017). Quantitative texture prediction of epitaxial columnar grains in additive manufacturing using selective laser melting. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 16, 58-64.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2017.05.005.

Liu, J., Cheng, L., & To, A.C. (2017). Arbitrary void feature control in level set topology optimization. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 324, 595-618.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2017.06.021.

Liu, J., Stevens, E., Yang, Q., Chmielus, M., & To, A.C. (2017). An analytical model of the melt pool and single track in coaxial laser direct metal deposition (LDMD) additive manufacturing. Journal of Micromechanics and Molecular Physics, 02(04), 1750013.World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt. doi: 10.1142/s2424913017500138.

Liu, J., Xiong, W., Behera, A., Thompson, S., & To, A.C. (2017). Mean-field polycrystal plasticity modeling with grain size and shape effects for laser additive manufactured FCC metals. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, 112, 35-42.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2017.02.024.

Stevens, E.L., Toman, J., To, A.C., & Chmielus, M. (2017). Variation of hardness, microstructure, and Laves phase distribution in direct laser deposited alloy 718 cuboids. MATERIALS & DESIGN, 119, 188-198.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2017.01.031.

Yang, Q., & To, A.C. (2017). Multiresolution molecular mechanics: Surface effects in nanoscale materials. JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS, 336, 212-234.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2017.01.058.

Yang, X., Huang, Y., Cao, B., & To, A.C. (2017). Length and temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of finite-size carbyne. PHYSICA E-LOW-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS & NANOSTRUCTURES, 93, 124-131.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2017.06.006.

Yang, X., Yu, D., Cao, B., & To, A.C. (2017). Ultrahigh Thermal Rectification in Pillared Graphene Structure with Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Intramolecular Junctions. ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 9(1), 29-35.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b12853.

Zhang, P., Liu, J., & To, A.C. (2017). Role of anisotropic properties on topology optimization of additive manufactured load bearing structures. SCRIPTA MATERIALIA, 135, 148-152.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.10.021.

Baykasoglu, C., Ozturk, Z., Kirca, M., Celebi, A.T., Mugan, A., & To, A.C. (2016). Effects of lithium doping on hydrogen storage properties of heat welded random CNT network structures. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, 41(19), 8246-8255.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.11.182.

Biyikli, E., & To, A.C. (2016). Multiresolution molecular mechanics: Adaptive analysis. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 305, 682-702.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.02.038.

Kirca, M., & To, A.C. (2016). Mechanics of CNT Network Materials. In Advanced Computational Nanomechanics. (pp. 29-70).John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi: 10.1002/9781119068921.ch2.

Yang, Q., Zhang, P., Cheng, L., Min, Z., Chyu, M., & To, A.C. (2016). Finite element modeling and validation of thermomechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V in directed energy deposition additive manufacturing. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 12, 169-177.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2016.06.012.

Yang, X., Huang, Y., Wang, L., Cao, B., & To, A.C. (2016). Formation of single carbon chain bridging two SWCNTs via tensile deformation of nanobud junction. MATERIALS & DESIGN, 97, 86-92.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2016.02.061.

Zeinalabedini, H., Yildiz, Y.O., Zhang, P., Laux, K., Kirca, M., & To, A.C. (2016). Homogenization of additive manufactured polymeric foams with spherical cells. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 12, 274-281.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2016.04.008.

Zhang, P., & To, A.C. (2016). Transversely isotropic hyperelastic-viscoplastic model for glassy polymers with application to additive manufactured photopolymers. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLASTICITY, 80, 56-74.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2015.12.012.

Biyikli, E., & To, A.C. (2015). Proportional Topology Optimization: A New Non-Sensitivity Method for Solving Stress Constrained and Minimum Compliance Problems and Its Implementation in MATLAB. In Shi, Y. (Ed.). PLOS ONE, 10(12), e0145041.Public Library of Science (PLoS). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145041.

Mu, X., Wang, L., Yang, X., Zhang, P., To, A.C., & Luo, T. (2015). Ultra-low Thermal Conductivity in Si/Ge Hierarchical Superlattice Nanowire. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 5(1), 16697.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/srep16697.

Ozturk, Z., Baykasoglu, C., Celebi, A.T., Kirca, M., Mugan, A., & To, A.C. (2015). Hydrogen storage in heat welded random CNT network structures. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, 40(1), 403-411.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.10.148.

Yang, Q., & To, A.C. (2015). Multiresolution molecular mechanics: A unified and consistent framework for general finite element shape functions. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 283, 384-418.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.09.031.

Yang, X., Wang, L., Huang, Y., To, A.C., & Cao, B. (2015). Effects of nanobuds and heat welded nanobuds chains on mechanical behavior of carbon nanotubes. COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, 109, 49-55.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2015.07.005.

Zhang, P., & To, A.C. (2015). Point group symmetry and deformation-induced symmetry breaking of superlattice materials. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 471(2182), 20150125.The Royal Society. doi: 10.1098/rspa.2015.0125.

Zhang, P., Heyne, M.A., & To, A.C. (2015). Biomimetic staggered composites with highly enhanced energy dissipation: Modeling, 3D printing, and testing. JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS, 83, 285-300.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2015.06.015.

Zhang, P., Toman, J., Yu, Y., Biyikli, E., Kirca, M., Chmielus, M., & To, A.C. (2015). Efficient Design-Optimization of Variable-Density Hexagonal Cellular Structure by Additive Manufacturing: Theory and Validation. JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, 137(2).ASME International. doi: 10.1115/1.4028724.

Biyikli, E., Yang, Q., & To, A.C. (2014). Multiresolution Molecular Mechanics: Dynamics. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 274, 42-55.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.02.007.

Celebi, A.T., Kirca, M., Baykasoglu, C., Mugan, A., & To, A.C. (2014). Tensile behavior of heat welded CNT network structures. COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, 88, 14-21.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2014.02.040.

Fu, Y., & To, A. (2014). A modification to Hardy's thermomechanical theory that conserves fundamental properties more accurately: Tensile and shear failures in iron. Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 22(015010).

Fu, Y., & To, A.C. (2014). A modification to Hardy's thermomechanical theory for conserving fundamental properties more accurately: tensile and shear failures in iron. MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, 22(1), 015010.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/0965-0393/22/1/015010.

Giri, A., Tao, J., Wang, L., Kirca, M., & To, A.C. (2014). Compressive Behavior and Deformation Mechanism of Nanoporous Open-Cell Foam with Ultrathin Ligaments. Journal of Nanomechanics and Micromechanics, 4(2).American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). doi: 10.1061/(asce)nm.2153-5477.0000079.

Mohammadyani, D., Modarress, H., To, A.C., & Amani, A. (2014). Interactions of Fullerene (C-60) and its Hydroxyl Derivatives with Lipid Bilayer: A Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation. BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, 44(1), 1-7.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s13538-013-0172-8.

Yang, Q., Biyikli, E., & To, A.C. (2014). Multiresolution molecular mechanics: Convergence and error structure analysis. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 269, 20-45.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2013.10.012.

Yang, X., Chen, D., Du, Y., & To, A.C. (2014). Heat conduction in extended X-junctions of single-walled carbon nanotubes. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF SOLIDS, 75(1), 123-129.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2013.09.009.

Yang, X., Chen, D., Han, Z., Ma, X., & To, A.C. (2014). Effects of welding on thermal conductivity of randomly oriented carbon nanotube networks. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, 70, 803-810.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.11.071.

Yang, X., Huang, Y., Wang, L., Han, Z., & To, A.C. (2014). Nanobuds promote heat welding of carbon nanotubes at experimentally-relevant temperatures. RSC ADVANCES, 4(99), 56313-56317.Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). doi: 10.1039/c4ra08890e.

Yang, X., Wang, L., Huang, Y., Han, Z., & To, A.C. (2014). Carbon nanotube-fullerene hybrid nanostructures by C-60 bombardment: formation and mechanical behavior. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 16(39), 21615-21619.Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). doi: 10.1039/c4cp02620a.

Zhang, P., & To, A. (2014). Highly enhanced damping figure of merit in biomimetic hierarchical staggered composites. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 81(051015).

Zhang, P., & To, A.C. (2014). Highly Enhanced Damping Figure of Merit in Biomimetic Hierarchical Staggered Composites. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, 81(5).ASME International. doi: 10.1115/1.4026239.

Biyikli, E., Liu, J., Yang, X., & To, A.C. (2013). A fast method for generating atomistic models of arbitrarily-shaped carbon graphitic nanostructures. RSC ADVANCES, 3(5), 1359-1362.Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). doi: 10.1039/c2ra22598k.

Fu, Y., & To, A. (2013). A modification to Hardy's thermomechanical theory that conserves fundamental properties more accurately. Journal of Applied Physics, 113(233505).

Fu, Y., & To, A. (2013). On the evaluation of Hardy's thermomechanical quantities using ensemble and time averaging. Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 21(055015).

Fu, Y., & To, A.C. (2013). Application of Many-Realization Molecular Dynamics Method to Understand the Physics of Nonequilibrium Processes in Solids. In Multiscale Simulations and Mechanics of Biological Materials. (pp. 59-76).John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi: 10.1002/9781118402955.ch4.

Fu, Y., & To, A.C. (2013). A modification to Hardy's thermomechanical theory that conserves fundamental properties more accurately. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 113(23), 233505.AIP Publishing. doi: 10.1063/1.4811450.

Fu, Y., & To, A.C. (2013). On the evaluation of Hardy's thermomechanical quantities using ensemble and time averaging. MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, 21(5), 055015.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/0965-0393/21/5/055015.

Giri, A., Tao, J., Kirca, M., & To, A.C. (2013). Mechanics of nanoporous metals. In Handbook of Micromechanics and Nanomechanics. (pp. 827-868).Pan Stanford. doi: 10.4032/9789814411240.

Kirca, M., Yang, X., & To, A.C. (2013). A stochastic algorithm for modeling heat welded random carbon nanotube network. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 259, 1-9.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2013.02.014.

Yang, Q., Biyikli, E., & To, A.C. (2013). Multiresolution molecular mechanics: Statics. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 258, 26-38.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2013.01.014.

Yang, X., Qiao, F., Zhu, X., Zhang, P., Chen, D., & To, A.C. (2013). Coalescence of parallel finite length single-walled carbon nanotubes by heat treatment. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF SOLIDS, 74(3), 436-440.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2012.11.006.

Zhang, P., & To, A.C. (2013). Broadband wave filtering of bioinspired hierarchical phononic crystal. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 102(12), 121910.AIP Publishing. doi: 10.1063/1.4799171.

Stormer, B.A., Piper, N.M., Yang, X.M., Tao, J., Fu, Y., Kirca, M., & To, A.C. (2012). Mechanical properties of SWNT X-Junctions through molecular dynamics simulation. International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials, 3(1), 33-46.Informa UK Limited. doi: 10.1080/19475411.2011.640361.

Yang, Q., Biyikli, E., Zhang, P., Tian, R., & To, A. (2012). Atom collocation method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 237, 67-77.

Yang, X., Han, Z., Li, Y., Chen, D., Zhang, P., & To, A.C. (2012). Heat welding of non-orthogonal X-junction of single-walled carbon nanotubes. PHYSICA E-LOW-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS & NANOSTRUCTURES, 46, 30-32.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2012.08.015.

Yang, X., Zhang, P., Han, Z., Chen, D., & To, A.C. (2012). Transformation of non-orthogonal X-junction of single-walled carbon nanotubes into parallel junction by heating. CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS, 547, 42-46.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2012.08.008.

Datta, A., Kirca, M., Fu, Y., & To, A. (2011). Surface structure and properties of functionalized nanodiamonds: a first-principles study. Nanotechnology, 22, 065706.

Datta, A., Srirangarajan, A., Waghmare, U.V., Ramamurty, U., & To, A.C. (2011). Surface effects on stacking fault and twin formation in fcc nanofilms: A first-principles study. COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, 50(12), 3342-3345.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.026.

Fu, Y., Kirca, M., & To, A. (2011). On determining the thermal state of individual atoms in molecular dynamics simulations of nonequilibrium processes in solids. Chemical Physics Letters, 206, 290-97.

Piper, N.M., Fu, Y., Tao, J., Yang, X., & To, A. (2011). Vibration promotes heat welding of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Chemical Physics Letters, 502, 231234.

Piper, N.M., Fu, Y., Tao, J., Yang, X., & To, A.C. (2011). Vibration promotes heat welding of single-walled carbon nanotubes. CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS, 502(4-6), 231-234.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2010.12.068.

Tian, R., To, A.C., & Liu, W.K. (2011). Conforming local meshfree method. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, 86(3), 335-357.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/nme.3067.

To, A.C., Fu, Y., & Liu, W.K. (2011). Denoising methods for thermomechanical decomposition for quasi-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 200(23-24), 1979-1992.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2011.03.004.

To, A.C., Tao, J., Kirca, M., & Schalk, L. (2011). Ligament and joint sizes govern softening in nanoporous aluminum. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 98(5), 051903.AIP Publishing. doi: 10.1063/1.3549858.

Yang, X., To, A.C., & Kirca, M. (2011). Thermal conductivity of periodic array of intermolecular junctions of silicon nanowires. PHYSICA E-LOW-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS & NANOSTRUCTURES, 44(1), 141-145.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2011.08.003.

Chambreau, S.D., Vaghjiani, G.L., To, A., Koh, C., Strasser, D., Kostko, O., & Leone, S.R. (2010). Heats of Vaporization of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids by Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, 114(3), 1361-1367.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/jp909423m.

Yang, X., To, A.C., & Tian, R. (2010). Anomalous heat conduction behavior in thin finite-size silicon nanowires. NANOTECHNOLOGY, 21(15), 155704.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/21/15/155704.

Gonella, S., To, A.C., & Liu, W.K. (2009). Interplay between phononic bandgaps and piezoelectric microstructures for energy harvesting. JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS, 57(3), 621-633.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2008.11.002.

Hu, Y., To, A.C., & Yun, M. (2009). The controlled growth of single metallic and conducting polymer nanowires via gate-assisted electrochemical deposition. NANOTECHNOLOGY, 20(28), 285605.IOP Publishing. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/20/28/285605.

Lee, B.J., & To, A.C. (2009). Enhanced absorption in one-dimensional phononic crystals with interfacial acoustic waves. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 95(3), 031911.AIP Publishing. doi: 10.1063/1.3182819.

To, A., & Romanowicz, B. (2009). Finite frequency effects on global S diffracted traveltimes. GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, 179(3), 1645-1657.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04359.x.

To, A.C., Moore, J.R., & Glaser, S.D. (2009). Wavelet denoising techniques with applications to experimental geophysical data. SIGNAL PROCESSING, 89(2), 144-160.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2008.07.023.

To, A.C., Liu, W.K., & Kopacz, A. (2008). A finite temperature continuum theory based on interatomic potential in crystalline solids. COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, 42(4), 531-541.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00466-007-0239-x.

To, A.C., Liu, W.K., Olson, G.B., Belytschko, T., Chen, W., Shephard, M.S., Chung, Y.W., Ghanem, R., Voorhees, P.W., Seidman, D.N., Wolverton, C., Chen, J.S., Moran, B., Freeman, A.J., Tian, R., Luo, X., Lautenschlager, E., & Challoner, A.D. (2008). Materials integrity in microsystems: a framework for a petascale predictive-science-based multiscale modeling and simulation system. COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, 42(4), 485-510.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00466-008-0267-1.

Yin, X., Chen, W., To, A., McVeigh, C., & Liu, W.K. (2008). Statistical volume element method for predicting micro structure-constitutive property relations. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 197(43-44), 3516-3529.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2008.01.008.

Liu, Y., Liu, W.K., Belytschko, T., Patankar, N., To, A.C., Kopacz, A., & Chung, J.H. (2007). Immersed electrokinetic finite element method. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, 71(4), 379-405.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/nme.1941.

Li, S., Liu, X., Agrawal, A., & To, A.C. (2006). Perfectly matched multiscale simulations for discrete lattice systems: Extension to multiple dimensions. PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 74(4), 045418.American Physical Society (APS). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.74.045418.

To, A.C., Li, S., & Glaser, S.D. (2006). Propagation of a mode-III interfacial conductive crack along a conductive interface between two piezoelectric materials. WAVE MOTION, 43(5), 368-386.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.wavemoti.2006.02.001.

Li, S.F., To, A.C., & Glaser, S.D. (2005). On scattering in a piezoelectric medium by a conducting crack. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, 72(6), 943-954.ASME International. doi: 10.1115/1.2047627.

To, A., & Li, S. (2005). Perfectly matched multiscale simulations. Physical Review B, 72, 035414.

To, A.C., & Glaser, S.D. (2005). Full waveform inversion of a 3-D source inside an artificial rock. JOURNAL OF SOUND AND VIBRATION, 285(4-5), 835-857.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2004.09.001.

To, A.C., Li, S.F., & Glaser, S.D. (2005). On scattering in dissimilar piezoelectric materials by a semi-infinite interfacial crack. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF MECHANICS AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS, 58(2), 309-331.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1093/qjmamj/hbi014.

Ching, J., To, A., & Glaser, S.D. (2004). Microseismic source deconvolution: Bayes vs. Wiener, Fourier vs. wavelets, and linear vs. nonlinear. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 115, 3048-58.

Ching, J.Y., To, A.C., & Glaser, S.D. (2004). Microseismic source deconvolution: Wiener filter versus minimax, Fourier versus wavelets, and linear versus nonlinear. JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 115(6), 3048-3058.Acoustical Society of America (ASA). doi: 10.1121/1.1705658.

To, A.C., Ernst, H., & Einstein, H.H. (2003). Lateral load capacity of drilled, shafts in jointed rock. JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, 129(8), 711-726.American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2003)129:8(711).

Cheng, L., Zhang, P., Biyikli, E., Bai, J., Pilz, S., & To, A.C. (2020). Integration of topology optimization with efficient design of additive manufactured cellular structures. In Proceedings - 26th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2015, (pp. 1370-1377).

Liang, X., Chen, Q., Cheng, L., Yang, Q., & To, A. (2020). A modified inherent strain method for fast prediction of residual deformation in additive manufacturing of metal parts. In Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2017, (pp. 2539-2545).

Tran, H.T., Zhou, Z., Lemon, J., & To, A.C. (2019). Distortion compensation for additive manufactured components via modified inherent strain method. In Proceedings - 34th ASPE Annual Meeting, (pp. 37-42).

Liu, J., Chen, Q., Zhao, Y., Xiong, W., & To, A. (2018). Quantitative Texture Prediction of Epitaxial Columnar Grains in Alloy 718 Processed by Additive Manufacturing. In Minerals, Metals and Materials Series, 2018-June, (pp. 749-755).Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-89480-5_49.

Zou, R., Liang, X., Wang, M., Yan, A., Ohodnicki, P., To, A., & Chen, K. (2018). Embedding Distributed Temperature and Strain Optical Fiber Sensors in Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing. In Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Part F92-CLEO_AT 2018.OSA. doi: 10.1364/cleo_at.2018.atu4m.6.

Zou, R., Liang, X., Wang, M., Yan, A., Ohodnicki, P., To, A., & Chen, K. (2018). Embedding Distributed Temperature and Strain Optical Fiber Sensors in Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing. In 2018 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2018 - Proceedings.

Conover, D.L., Pilz, S., & To, A.C. (2017). Simulation-driven product development for additive manufacturing. In Simulation for Additive Manufacturing 2017, Sinam 2017, 2017-October, (pp. 97-98).

Li, S., Zou, R., Yan, A., Cheng, L., To, A., & Chen, K. (2017). 3D Temperature Mapping of Cellular Passive Cooling Structures Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing for Lasers. In Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2017-January, (pp. 1-2).OSA. doi: 10.1364/cleo_at.2017.jw2a.83.

Liu, J., & To, A.C. (2017). B-spline based topology optimization for metal hybrid additive-subtractive manufacturing. In Simulation for Additive Manufacturing 2017, Sinam 2017, 2017-October, (pp. 175-176).

Zou, R., Liang, X., Cao, R., Li, S., To, A., Ohodnicki, P., Buric, M., & Chen, K. (2017). Optical Fiber Sensor-Fused Additive Manufacturing and Its Applications in Residual Stress Measurements. In Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Part F43-CLEO_AT 2017.OSA. doi: 10.1364/cleo_at.2017.aw1b.2.

Zou, R., Liang, X., Cao, R., Li, S., To, A., Ohodnicki, P., Buric, M., & Chen, K. (2017). Optical fiber sensor-fused additive manufacturing and its applications in residual stress measurements. In 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2017 - Proceedings, 2017-January, (pp. 1-2). doi: 10.1364/CLEO_SI.2017.AW1B.2.

Cheng, L., Belski, E., Ludwick, S., Oskin, J., & To, A. (2016). Lattice structure topology optimization for lightweight additive manufactured design: Experimental validation and dimensional accuracy. In Proceedings - ASPE/euspen 2016 Summer Topical Meeting: Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manufacturing, (pp. 93-97).

Zou, R., Cao, R., Zaghloul, M.A.S., Yan, A., Chen, R., Ohodnicki, P., Buric, M., Crandall, D., Liang, X., To, A., & Chen, K. (2016). Optical Fiber Sensor-Fused Additive Manufacturing and Its Applications in Residual Stress Measurements in Titanium Parts. In Asia Pacific Optical Sensors Conference, Part F37-APOS 2016.OSA. doi: 10.1364/apos.2016.th1a.7.

Wang, X., Biyikli, E., & To, A.C. (2015). Proportional topology optimization method for frequency optimization of 3D printed parts. In Proceedings - ASPE 2015 Spring Topical Meeting: Achieving Precision Tolerances in Additive Manufacturing, (pp. 32-35).

Yang, Q., Biyikli, E., & To, A.C. (2013). Multiresolution molecular mechanics: Statics. 12th US National Congress on Computational Mechanics.Raleigh, NC. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2013.01.014.

Yang, Q., Biyikli, E., Zhang, P., Tian, R., & To, A.C. (2012). Atom collocation method. In COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 237, (pp. 67-77).Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2012.05.010.

Datta, A., Kirca, M., Fu, Y., & To, A.C. (2011). Surface structure and properties of functionalized nanodiamonds: a first-principles study. In NANOTECHNOLOGY, 22(6), (p. 065706).IOP Publishing.England. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/22/6/065706.

Fu, Y., Kirca, M., & To, A.C. (2011). On determining the thermal state of individual atoms in molecular dynamics simulations of nonequilibrium processes in solids. In CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS, 506(4-6), (pp. 290-297).Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2011.03.012.

Datta, A., Fu, Y., Kirca, M., & To, A. (2010). Structure and Surface Properties of Nanodiamonds: A First-Principles Multiscale Approach. In ASME 2010 First Global Congress on NanoEngineering for Medicine and Biology, (pp. 233-235).ASMEDC. doi: 10.1115/nemb2010-13266.

Yang, X., To, A.C., Lu, J.W.Z., Leung, A.Y.T., Iu, V.P., & Mok, K.M. (2010). Thermal Conductivity in Thin Silicon Nanowires with Rough Surfaces by Molecular Dynamics Simulations. In AIP Conference Proceedings, 1233(PART 1), (pp. 806-811).AIP. doi: 10.1063/1.3452282.

To, A.C., & Lee, B.J. (2009). Multifunctional One-dimensional Phononic Crystal Structures Exploiting Interfacial Acoustic Waves. In MRS Proceedings, 1188, (pp. 193-197).Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1557/proc-1188-ll06-04.

Liu, W.K., McVeigh, C., To, A., & Tian, R. (2007). Multiresolution mechanics and ultra large-scale multiscale simulation of nano/micro-structured materials. In Computational Plasticity - Fundamentals and Applications, COMPLAS IX, (PART 1), (pp. 49-53).

To, A.C., & Li, S.F. (2005). Perfectly matched multiscale simulations. In PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 72(3).American Physical Society (APS). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.035414.